The coldest continent of the seven continents is the continent of Antarctica. He is also the most inaccessible and the most distant place of human settlement. It is surrounded by the most stormy oceans in the world and large floating mountains of snow in almost all months of the year. Its total area is 1.4 million square kilometers. In terms of area, he is larger than Australia. Antarctica has very little rainfall, so it is considered cold desert. The average annual rainfall there is only 200 millimeters.
In 1774, British explorer James Cook landed in search of some terrain in the south of the Antarctica circle. He found a huge wall of snow. He speculated that the land would be in front of this wall. His guess was correct, he reached the threshold of Antarctica. But to keep Antarctica on foot, man has been engaged for 75 years.
Average thickness of Antarctica ice
There is considerable difference in Arctic (North Pole) and Antarctica (southern pole). The most important difference is that in Antarctica, there is six times more ice than the Arctic. This is because Antarctica is a continent, while the Arctic region is primarily an ocean. The average thickness of Antarctica ice is 1,6 kilometers. Most of Antarctica’s continent is made up of mountains with raised shoulders and peaks.
The weather in Antarctica remains frozen and free from snowy winds. There is probably only 2,000 square kilometers open land in this continent. Only 20 days in a year, temperature remains above zero. The lowest temperature measured on the surface of the Earth is also measured in Antarctica. Temperature measured at -88.3 ° C on August 24, 1960 in Vostok, established by Soviet Russia.About Antarctica, it is rightly said that it is the capital of the winds. Occasionally winds of 320 km / hour wind speed, which cut the soil particles from the ground and fly away.
In the entire Antarctica continent, only 70 species of species have been discovered. Of these, 44 are insects. The largest insect is a type of featherless mosquito. There are also a large number of zoonakh, malfunction, fly, gambling etc. There is no terrestrial mammal in Antarctica, but many marine mammals come to rest on its shores, or search for food in the oceans around it. These include several types of whistles and five types of seals living around the South Pole – Kekra Bhojji Seal, Leopard Seal, Ross Seal, Weddell Seal and Gajcil. Rosa seals are extremely rare creatures, while Weddell seals remain close to the shores. All the seals have big gajsil. She does reproduction in the islands near Antarctica, but comes to search for food around Antarctica. In the oceans near Antarctica, there is a large amount of non-dental hybrids found in the oceans. They were massively killed for meat, fat, etc. at a time. Today their prey is banned internationally. Birds found in Antarctica include the South Pole Scuba and Adelie and Emperor Penguin.
free from pollution
Vegetarian animals in Antarctica are extremely rare, because in the name of vegetation there are lava, lacen, moss, etc. Some species of primitive plants and only two types of flowering plants are there.Antarctica is important because there are many types of scientific experiments. Scientists have carried out many experiments related to the earth’s magnetic characteristics, the effects of solar radiation on Earth, sea movements, organisms, and geology. Many countries including India have established permanent scientific centers in Antarctica. These countries include China, Brazil, Argentina, Korea, Peru, Poland, Uruguay, Italy, Sweden, USA, Russia etc.
The first stop named by India was named South Gangotri. When this stop came under water, another place called Maitri was established in the 1980s. Antarctica was free from pollution for centuries, but recently, scientists have discovered DDT, plastic, paper etc. in the snow there, which were born from established scientific camps there. Scientists believe Antarctica has significant mines of more than 900 substances. These include lead, copper and uranium.
Humans may increase in Antarctica
There is no claim of any country on Antarctica, nor is there any human settlement except in some scientific camps of different countries. But will this situation always remain such a thing? As the human population grows, America, Africa, Australia can compete for its colonization like the continents. If there are large mines of important minerals (such as gold, petroleum, etc.), then many countries will come forward to empower them. The heat of Antarctica can melt a lot of ice from the heat of the Earth, thereby enough area can be free of ice and can be worth living by humans. Apart from this, the arrival and settlement of humans may increase in Antarctica. Tourism can also contribute to it. As the technological developments, such devices will start becoming available which facilitate the normal life of extreme cold areas like Antarctica.
Therefore, in the 17th to 18th century by white tribes in Africa, In order to save this unique environment from the looting and destruction of America, etc. in America, and to promote the use of this continent more balanced and in the interest of all human beings, 12 countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 big.